Henninger J, Grewe J, Kirschbaum F, Krahe R, Benda J (submitted) Court and spark in the wild: communication at the limits of sensation.

In press

Pollack GS, Krahe R (in press) Signal Identification: Peripheral and Central Mechanisms. Edited and updated chapter for: Squire L, Albright T, Bloom F, Gage F, Spitzer N (eds) New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 799-804; now published in Elsevier online reference module: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology

In revision

Toscano-Márquez B, Harvey-Girard E, Maler L, Krahe R (in revision) Distribution of the cholinergic nuclei in the brain of A. leptorhynchus determined by in situ hybridization of choline acetyltransferase mRNA.


Fotowat H, Harvey-Girard E, Cheer JF, Krahe R, Maler L (2016) Sub-second sensory-evoked serotonin dynamics and its relation to ongoing communication behavior. eNeuro 3:e0115-0116: 1-12. doi:

Picq SC, Alda F, Bermingham E, Krahe R (2016) Drift-driven evolution of electric signals in a Neotropical knifefish. Evolution 70: 2134–2144. doi:10.1111/evo.13010

Metzen MG, Krahe R, Chacron MJ (2016) Burst firing in the electrosensory system of gymnotiform weakly electric fish: mechanisms and functional roles. Front Comput Neurosci 10: 81.
doi: 10.3389/fncom.2016.00081

Dunlap KD, Tran A, Ragazzi MA, Krahe R, Salazar VL (2016) Predation affects brain cell proliferation in natural populations of electric fish, Brachyhypopomus occidentalis. Proc R Soc Lond B 283: 20152113.


Picq SC, Alda F, Krahe R, Bermingham E (2014) Miocene and Pliocene colonization of the Central American Isthmus by the weakly electric fish Brachyhypopomus occidentalis (Hypopomidae, Gymnotiformes). J Biogeogr 41: 1520-1532

Krahe R, Maler L (2014) Neural maps in the electrosensory system of weakly electric fish. Curr Opin Neurobiol 24:13-21


Fotowat H, Harrison RR, Krahe R (2013) Statistics of the electrosensory input in the freely swimming weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. J Neurosci 33:13758-13772

Alda F, Picq S, De León LF, González R, Walz H, Bermingham E, Krahe R (2013) First record of Gymnotus henni (Albert, Crampton & Maldonado, 2003) in Panama: phylogenetic position and electric signal characterization. Checklist 9: 655-659

Benda J, Grewe J, Krahe R (2013) Neural noise in electrocommunication – from burden to benefits. In: H. Brumm (ed.), Animal Communication and Noise, Animal Signals and Communication 2. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-41494-7_12, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Salazar VL, Krahe R, Lewis JE (2013) The energetics of electric organ discharge generation in gymnotiform weakly electric fish. J Exp Biol 216: 2549-2468

Toscano-Marquez B, Krahe R, Chacron MJ (2013) Neuromodulation of sensory processing in gymnotiform weakly electric fish. J Exp Biol 216: 2442-2450

Electric fishes: neural systems, behaviour and evolution. Krahe R, Fortune ES (guest editors): Special Issue of J Exp Biol 216 (2013): 2363-2541

Krahe R, Fortune ES (2013) Electric fishes: neural systems, behaviour and evolution (editorial). J Exp Biol 216: 2363-2364

Toscano-Marquez B, Dunn R, Krahe, R (2013) Distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mRNA in the brain of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. J Comp Neurol 521: 1054-1072.


Cuddy M, Aubin-Horth N, Krahe R (2012) Electrocommunication behaviour and non invasively-measured androgen changes following induced seasonal breeding in the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. Horm Behav 61:4-11. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.09.003


Reardon EE, Parisi A, Krahe R, Chapman LJ (2011) Energetic constraints on electric signalling in wave-type weakly electric fishes. J. Exp. Biol. 214:4141-4150.

Savard M, Krahe R, Chacron MJ (2011) Neural heterogeneities influence envelope and temporal coding at the sensory periphery. Neuroscience 172: 270-284. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2010.10.061

Fugère V, Ortega H, Krahe R (2011) Electrical signaling of dominance in a wild population of electric fish. Biol Lett. 7:197-200.
Featured as Editor's choice in Science, vol. 330, 26 Nov. 2010, p.1156.
van der Sluijs I*, Gray SM*, Amorim MCP, Barber I, Candolin U, Hendry AP, Krahe R, Maan ME, Utne-Palm AC, Wagner H-J, Wong BBM (2011) Communication in troubled waters: The evolutionary implications of changing environments on fish communication systems. Evol Ecol 25:623–640.


Ávila-Ákerberg O, Krahe R, Chacron MJ (2010) Neural heterogeneities and stimulus properties affect burst coding in vivo. Neuroscience 168: 300-313.
Stamper SA, Carrera-G E, Tan EW, Fugère V, Krahe R, Fortune ES (2010) Species differences in group size and electrosensory interference in weakly electric fishes: Implications for electrosensory processing. Behav Brain Res 207: 368-376.

Fugère V, Krahe R. (2010) Electric signals and species recognition in wave-type gymnotiform fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. J Exp Biol 213:225-236.


Pollack GS, Krahe R (2009) Peripheral and central mechanisms of signal identification. In: Squire L, Albright T, Bloom F, Gage F, Spitzer N (eds) New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 799-804


Krahe R (2008) Rooted in behaviour (editorial). J Physiol (Paris) 102:154-156.

Mehaffey WH, Ellis LD, Krahe R, Dunn RJ, Chacron MJ (2008) Ionic and neuromodulatory regulation of burst discharge controls frequency tuning. J Physiol (Paris) 102:195-208.

Krahe R, Bastian J, Chacron MJ (2008) Temporal processing across multiple topographic maps in the electrosensory system. J Neurophysiol 100:852-867.

Ronacher B, Wohlgemuth S, Vogel A, Krahe R (2008) Discrimination of acoustic communication signals by grasshoppers (Chorthippus biguttulus): temporal resolution, temporal integraton, and the impact of intrinsic noise. J Comp Psychol 122: 252-263.


Ellis L, Krahe R, Bourque CW, Dunn RJ, Chacron MJ (2007) Muscarinic receptors control frequency tuning through the downregulation of an A-type potassium current. J Neurophysiology 98: 1526-1537.

Tamburello N, Krahe R (2007) Variations in the electrocommunication behaviour of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. McGill Sci Undergrad Res J 2: 9-13


Chen L, House JL, Krahe R, Nelson ME (2005) Modeling signal and background components of electrosensory scenes. J Comp Physiol A 191: 331-345


Krahe R, Gabbiani F (2004) Burst firing in sensory systems. Nat Rev Neurosci 5:13-23


Krahe R, Gabbiani F (2003) Bursting activity in weakly electric fish. In: Computational Neuroscience: A Comprehensive Approach (J Feng, ed.). Chapman and Hall/CRC Press: London.


Krahe R, Budinger E, Ronacher B (2002a) Coding of a sexually dimorphic song feature by auditory interneurons of grasshoppers: the role of leading inhibition. J Comp Physiol A 187: 977-985

Krahe R, Kreiman G, Gabbiani F, Koch C, Metzner W (2002b) Stimulus encoding and feature extraction by multiple sensory neurons. J Neurosci 22: 2374-2382


Machens CK, Stemmler MH, Prinz P, Krahe R, Ronacher B, Herz AVM (2001) Representation of acoustic communication signals by insect auditory receptor neurons. J Neurosci 21: 3215-3227


Krahe R, Larsen ON, Ronacher B (2000) Directional hearing is only weakly dependent on the rise time of acoustic stimuli. J Acoust Soc Am 107: 1067-1070

Kreiman G, Krahe R, Metzner W, Koch C, Gabbiani F (2000) Robustness and variability of neuronal coding by amplitude-sensitive afferents in the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia. J Neurophysiol 84: 189-204.

Ronacher B, Krahe R (2000) Temporal integration vs. parallel processing: coping with the variability of neuronal messages in directional hearing of insects. Eur J Neurosci 12: 2147-56

Ronacher B, Krahe R, Hennig RM (2000) Effects of signal duration on the recognition of masked communication signals by the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. J Comp Physiol A 186: 1065-1072

< 2000

Fuhr G, Ronacher B, Krahe R, Fest S, Shirley SG, Rogaschewski S (1999) UV-laser ablation of sensory cells in living insects. Appl Phys A 68: 379-385

Ronacher B, Krahe R (1998) Song recognition in the grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus is not impaired by shortening song signals: implications for neuronal encoding. J Comp Physiol A 183: 729-735

Ronacher B, Krahe R (1997) Long rise times of acoustic stimuli improve directional hearing in grasshoppers. Naturwissenschaften 84: 168-170

Heller K-G, Krahe R (1994) Sound production and hearing in the pyralid moth Symmoracma minoralis. J Exp Biol 187: 101-111

Krahe R, Ronacher B (1993) Long rise times of sound pulses in grasshopper songs improve the directionality cues received by the CNS from the auditory receptors. J Comp Physiol A 173: 425-43

Last update: Dec. 9, 2016
The electrosensory system:
weakly electric fish generate an electric field around their body to electrolocate objects.
(from: Ellis et al, 2007)